Tuesday, August 13, 2013

Complications of Gallstones

Gallstones are small rocks that form in the gallbladder that vary in size. There can be anywhere from a single large stone to multiple gravel-like stones. Many people with gallstones may never experience any symptoms. Symptoms vary from mild upper abdominal discomfort and bloating to severe pain due to life-threatening acute pancreatitis.

The presence of gallstones in a diseased gallbladder can be responsible for the mild symptoms of upper abdominal discomfort, bloating, and nausea; these symptoms can be confused with symptoms of other conditions, such as acid reflux or peptic ulcer disease. When one of the stones blocks the gallbladder the patient will experience severe upper abdominal pain which is "crampy", the condition is called biliary colic.
If the blockage is not relieved biliary colic can progress into acute cholecystitis, which is an emergency.

When the gallstones are responsible for the symptoms of pain, nausea, or vomiting patients should seek a surgical consultation to consider the option of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (gallbladder removal surgery) as soon as possible to avoid serious complications of the gallstones.

Monday, August 5, 2013

Botox Injection for Anal Fissure

Anal fissures are painful tears in the lower end of the anal canal, most commonly caused by constipation and spasm of the internal sphincter of the anus. When initial treatment (high fiber diet, stool softener, laxative) fails surgery becomes necessary to relieve the spasm of the sphincter by cutting part of the sphincter which allows it to relax. Instead of surgical treatment, Botox injection into the sphincter can achieve the same result without the possible complications of surgery -- which is mainly incontinence.
The Botox injection lasts for three to four months which causes the sphincter to relax and allows the tear to heal. It is important to maintain regular, soft bowel movements with a high-fiber diet, a stool softener and, if necessary, laxative to avoid recurrence of the anal fissure.